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Five ways taxes can impact your retirement

Updated: Dec 6, 2021

When planning for expenses in retirement, it’s easy to think about travel and vacations while overlooking one significant expense – taxes. In Nationwide’s 2021 Retirement Income Survey, 41% of retirees surveyed wished they had been better prepared for taxes leading up to retirement.1

With tax laws, the only constant is change, and different types of income are subject to different tax treatments. Strategic, proactive tax planning can save you thousands of dollars throughout your retirement. Here are five things you need to know about taxes as you transition away from employment income into different sources of retirement income.

Tax Rates May Not Be Lower

Many retirees assume that expenses, such as spending and taxes, will go down once they leave the workforce. However, this isn’t always the case. Even though earned income will be lower, several other factors affect how much tax will be owed.

First, retirees don’t always have the same tax deductions as employed individuals do, such as the benefits of contributing to a 401(k) plan. Retirees who are enrolled in Medicare also lose the ability to contribute to the triple tax-advantaged Health Savings Account. For those who took advantage of these deductions over the years, it can be challenging to find other deductions to replace their impact.

Since a lot of income in retirement comes from investment withdrawals, that income may be subject to capital gains taxes. Depending on your withdrawal timing, spending and other forms of income, you could end up with a similar tax rate to when you were employed.

Also, having a paid-off home is an accomplishment for many retirees, but you lose the mortgage interest deduction from your taxable income.

Given that tax rates are hovering near historic lows and government spending is poised to increase, tax increases are very likely. This puts more emphasis on the need for proactive and strategic tax planning.

Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)

A key part of every retirement plan is addressing required minimum distributions. RMDs start at age 72 and play a role when taking withdrawals from retirement accounts, like 401(k)s and Traditional IRAs. Currently, the percentage required to withdraw in the first year is 3.65% and this percentage increases each year throughout retirement.

For those who have several IRAs and 401(k)s, RMDs are treated a little bit differently than those who have one retirement account. With multiple IRAs, the RMDs are calculated for each IRA, but can be withdrawn from any account. RMDs are also calculated separately for multiple 401(k) accounts but must be withdrawn separately from each account.

Unlike the other investment accounts mentioned, Roth IRAs have the unique advantage of not requiring minimum distributions. This can play a vital role in income planning as they also provide tax-free income upon reaching age 59 1/2 (if the account has been opened for 5 years or longer). It’s also possible to convert an existing 401(k) or IRA to a Roth IRA through a Roth conversion. Taxes are owed on the converted amount, but afterward, those funds grow tax-free and could be withdrawn tax-free upon meeting requirements and would not be subject to RMDs.

Leading up to retirement, it’s essential to find a balance between investing in different account types because they each have their own advantages and roles in an overall retirement income picture.

Taxes on Social Security and the Medicare Surtax

Different types of income in retirement are treated differently from a tax perspective. Given that most retirees receive income from Social Security, it’s important to know how it’s taxed and what you can do about it.

In 2021, 15% of social security benefits received remain tax-free no matter what income level you’re at. However, this means that depending on your provisional income, up to 85% of Social Security income could be subject to federal income tax. Calculating your provisional income is done by taking the sum of 50% of your social security benefits, gross income, and any tax-free interest received.

For example, let’s say a single retiree had $25,000 in gross income, $5,000 in municipal bond interest, and $26,000 in social security income. The provisional income in this situation would be $43,000 (the sum of income, tax-free interest, and half of SS), meaning 85% of social security benefits would be taxed. If the retiree was married and filed jointly, they would fall into the 50% tax threshold.

In addition to the taxation of social security, higher income retirees may also be subject to an additional tax on investment income: the Medicare surtax. This is a surcharge on your Medicare Part B premium that applies over certain income levels. This income would include taxable interest and realized capital gains. Having the flexibility to incorporate tax-free sources of income can make a tremendous difference in keeping your income below the level that would trigger the surcharge. Also, using tax-advantaged strategies such as tax-loss harvesting can also help investors who are nearing those thresholds realize investment losses, ideally dropping them below the income surcharge levels.

Taxes on Estates

In 2021, an estate avoids federal estate taxes if the value is less than $11.7 million for single filers or $23.4 million for those married filing jointly. But beware, this high limit is temporary. As of now, the threshold is scheduled to sunset to $5 million in 2026 (or possibly drop next year under new proposals).

Aside from federal taxes, the estate may still owe taxes in their respective state, which can be much lower than the federal rate. Also, with the potential elimination of the stepped-up basis, this could create a situation where all capital gains on assets within the estate are taxed based on the initial purchase price. Given the likelihood of some changes to estate plans in the future, it may a be a smart idea to consider gifting strategies, whether to family or charitable institutions. Exploring the use of a trust can also be beneficial, as trusts are extremely flexible and have the added benefit of avoiding probate.

The Standard Deduction Increases

In recent years, the standard deduction was subject to an increase and became an attractive option for those who may have typically itemized their deductions. For retirees, the standard deduction becomes even more attractive. In 2021, the standard deduction for those who are married and file jointly is $25,100. If both spouses are over the age of 65, that amount increases by $2,700.

Deciding on whether to take the standard deduction simply comes down to running the numbers and determining if itemizing would provide a larger deduction than the standard route.

The Takeaway

Taxes in retirement play a big role in overall expenses and must be managed carefully to avoid overpaying. By knowing how different types of income are taxed and what your options are, you can develop a strategy that helps you keep the most money in your pocket.

If you’re not sure how to handle tax planning, no worries, just contact me.

John M. Piershale, CFP®, AEP®

1. The Harris Poll. 2021 Nationwide Retirement Institute® Tax-Efficient Retirement Income Survey. March 25, 2021. Nationwide Financial.

John Piershale Wealth Management, LLC is an Investment Adviser registered with the State of IL and in other jurisdictions where exempt from registration. All views, expressions, and opinions included in this communication are subject to change. This communication is not intended as an offer or solicitation to buy, hold or sell any financial instrument or investment advisory services. Any information provided has been obtained from sources considered reliable, but we do not guarantee the accuracy or the completeness of any description of securities, markets or developments mentioned.

The information contained herein is intended to be used for educational purposes only and is not exhaustive. Diversification and/or any strategy that may be discussed does not guarantee against investment losses but are intended to help manage risk and return. If applicable, historical discussions and/or opinions are not predictive of future events.The content is presented in good faith and has been drawn from sources believed to be reliable. The content is not intended to be legal, tax or financial advice. Please consult a legal, tax or financial professional for information specific to your individual situation. This work is powered by Seven Group under the Terms of Service and may be a derivative original. More information can be found here.


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